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Techno-Press Journals

    Prof. Chang-Koon Choi
    Dept. of Civil & Envir. Eng.
    Korea Adv. Inst. of Sci & Technol.
    Daejeon 34141, Korea

    Prof. Phill-Seung Lee

    Dept. of Mech Eng.
    Korea Adv. Inst. of Sci & Technol.
    Daejeon 34141, Korea

 SCIE (Impact factor: 2.2)
ISSN: 1225-4568(Print), ISSN: 1598-6217(Online)
Vol.89/90/91/92 (24 issues) for 2024, Semi-Monthly
Hybrid Open Access journal: there is an Optional Open Access Fee of USD 1195.
For correspondence:
The Official Journal of International Association of Structural Engineering and Mechanics(IASEM).
This work was supported by the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies (KOFST) grant funded by the Korea goverment (MOSF&MSIP).
Aims and Scopes

The STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS, An International Journal, aims at: providing a major publication channel for structural engineering, wider distribution at more affordable subscription rates; faster reviewing and publication for manuscripts submitted; and a broad scope for wider participation.
The main subject of the Journal is structural engineering concerned with aspects of mechanics. Areas covered by the Journal include:
Structural Mechanics
Design of Civil, Building and Mechanical Structures
Structural Optimization and Controls
Structural Safety and Reliability
New Structural Materials and Applications
Effects of Wind, Earthquake and Wave Loadings on Structures
Fluid-Structure and Soil-Structure Interactions
AI Application and Expert Systems in Structural Engineering. Submission of papers from practicing engineers is particularly encouraged.
Editorial Board
Prof. Akrum Abdul-Latif
University of Paris 8
93290 Tremblay, France

Prof. Sergei Alexandrov
Inst for Problems in Mech., Academy Scis
119526 Moscow, Russia

Prof. Ricardo J. Alves de Sousa
University of Aveiro
3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

Prof. Charis Alk. Apostolopoulos
University of Patras
26500 Patra, Greece

Prof. Francis Tat Kwong Au
University of Hong Kong
Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

Prof. Giovanni Minafo
University of Palermo
90128 Palermo, Italy

Prof. Majid Reza Ayatollahi
Iran University of Science & Technology
Tehran 16846/13114, Iran

Prof. Amadeo Benavent-Climent
Technical University of Madrid
28006 Madrid, Spain

Prof. Najib Bouaanani
Polytechnique Montreal
QC, Canada, H3C 3A7

Prof. Andrea Carpinteri
University of Parma
43100 Parma, Italy

Dr. Hua-Peng Chen
University of Greenwich
London SE10 9LS, U.K.

Prof. J. S. Chen
University of California, LA
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593, USA

Prof. J. R. Cho
Hongik University
Sejong 30016, Korea

Prof. S. Chucheepsakul
King Mongkut's Univ of Tech. Thonburi
Bangkok 10140, Thailand

Dr. Omer Civalek
Akdeniz University
Antalya, Turkey

Prof. Massimo Fragiacomo
University of Sassari
07041 Alghero, Italy

Prof. Paolo Fuschi
U Mediterranea Reggio Calabria
I-89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy

Prof. Jianhui Hu
Shanghai Jiao Tong U
Shanghai 200240, China

Prof. H. Jun
Jeonbuk Nat Univ
Jeollabukdo 54896, Korea

Prof. S. Kim
Gyeongsang Nat Univ
Gyeongsangnamdo 52828, Korea

Prof. H. G. Kwak
Daejeon 34141, Korea

Prof. Hadji Lazreg
University of Tiaret
BP P 78, 14000, Tiaret, Algeria

Dr. Frederic Lebon
Aix-Marseille University
13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France

Prof. Bing Li
Nangyang Technological University

Prof. Q. S. Li
City University of Hong Kong
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Dr. S. C. Liu
National Science Foundation
Virginia 22230, U.S.A.

Prof. Yew-Chaye Loo
Griffith University
QLD 4217, Australia

Prof. Y. B. Yang
National Taiwan University
Taipei, Taiwan 10764

Prof. Victor Yepes
Universidad Politecnica de Valencia
46022 Valencia, Spain

Prof. Ka-Veng Yuen
University of Macau
Taipa, Macau, China

Prof. G. J. Yun
The University of Akron
Akron, OH 44325-3905, U.S.A.

Prof. Abdul-Hamid Zureick
Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia 30332-0355, USA

Prof. Bo Wun Huang
Cheng Shiu University
Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan

Prof. Raja Rizwan Hussain
Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

Prof. A. G. Tsonos
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

Prof. Yong Lu
The University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh EH9 3JL, U.K.

Prof. Paolo Maria Mariano
Universita di Firenze
I-50139 Firenze, Italy

Prof. Gabriele Milani
Technical University of in Milan
Milan, Italy 20133

Prof. Yaqub Rafiq
Plymouth University

Prof. Salam Rahmatalla
University of Iowa
Iowa, 52242, U.S.A.

Prof. S. Rajasekaran
PSG College of Technology
Coimbatore-641004, Tamilnadu, India

Prof. Yuri Ribakov
Ariel University of Cntr Samaria
Ariel, Israel

Prof. Hugo Rodrigues
University of Aveiro
Campus Universitário de Santiago
3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal

Dr. Saptarshi Sasmal
CSIR-Structural Engr Research Cntr
Chennai 600113, India

Prof. Delfim Soares Junior
Universidade Federal de Juiz de For a
Juiz de Fora (MG), 36036-330, Brazil

Prof. Andrea Spagnoli
University of Parma
43100 Parma, Italy

Prof. Kai-Leung Ray Su
University of Hong Kong
Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

Prof. Zhongqing Su
Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Prof. Izuru Takewaki
Kyoto University
Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

Prof. Mustafa Toparli
Dokuz Eylul University
Izmir, Turkey

Prof. Francesco Ubertini
Universita di Bologna
40136 Bologna, Italy

Prof. Yuanfeng Duan
Zhejiang University
Abstracted/indexed in
Science Citation Index Expanded(SciSearch)
International Civil Engineering Abstracts
ISI Alerting Services
Current Contents/Engineering, Computing & Technology
International Civil Engineering Abstracts
Abstract Journal in Earthquake Engineering
Shock and Vibration Digest
Metals Abstracts; Engineering Index
INSPEC(Electrical & Electronic Abstracts and Computer Control Abstracts)
Applied Mechanics Reviews
International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA).
Sample Issue
Volume 41, Number 1, January10 2012
  • Shake table tests on a non-seismically detailed RC frame structure
    Akanshu Sharma, G.R. Reddy and K.K. Vaze
    Abstract; Full Text (3127K)

A reinforced concrete (RC) framed structure detailed according to non-seismic detailing provisions as per Indian Standard was tested on shake table under dynamic loads. The structure had 3 main storeys and an additional storey to simulate the footing to plinth level. In plan the structure was symmetric with 2 bays in each direction. In order to optimize the information obtained from the tests, tests were planned in three different stages. In the first stage, tests were done with masonry infill panels in one direction to obtain information on the stiffness increase due to addition of infill panels. In second stage, the infills were removed and tests were conducted on the structure without and with tuned liquid dampers (TLD) on the roof of the structure to investigate the effect of TLD on seismic response of the structure. In the third stage, tests were conducted on bare frame structure under biaxial time histories with gradually increasing peak ground acceleration (PGA) till failure. The simulated earthquakes represented low, moderate and severe seismic ground motions. The effects of masonry infill panels on dynamic characteristics of the structure, effectiveness of TLD in reducing the seismic response of structure and the failure patterns of non-seismically detailed structures, are clearly brought out. Details of design and similitude are also discussed.

Key Words
shake table test; structural engineering; RC structure; dynamic loads; masonry infill panels; tuned liquid dampers; seismic response; nonlinear behaviour; similitude requirements

Akanshu Sharma, G.R. Reddy and K.K. Vaze: Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India

Kriging surrogate model provides explicit functions to represent the relationships between the inputs and outputs of a linear or nonlinear system, which is a desirable advantage for response estimation and parameter identification in structural design and model updating problem. However, little research has been carried out in applying Kriging model to crack identification. In this work, a scheme for crack identification based on a Kriging surrogate model is proposed. A modified rectangular grid (MRG) is introduced to move some sample points lying on the boundary into the internal design region, which will provide more useful information for the construction of Kriging model. The initial Kriging model is then constructed by samples of varying crack parameters (locations and sizes) and their corresponding modal frequencies. For identifying crack parameters, a robust stochastic particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm is used to find the global optimal solution beyond the constructed Kriging model. To improve the accuracy of surrogate model, the finite element (FE) analysis soft ANSYS is employed to deal with the re-meshing problem during surrogate model updating. Specially, a simple method for crack number identification is proposed by finding the maximum probability factor. Finally, numerical simulations and experimental research are performed to assess the effectiveness and noise immunity of this proposed scheme.

Key Words
Kriging surrogate model; crack identification; stochastic particle swarm optimization; probability factor

Hai-yang Gao, Xing-lin Guo and Xiao-fei Hu: State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, P.R. China

  • Concrete contribution to initial shear strength of RC hollow bridge columns
    Ick-Hyun Kim, Chang-Ho Sun and Myoungsu Shin
    Abstract; Full Text (4165K)

The primary objective of this study was to identify concrete contribution to the initial shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) hollow columns under lateral loading. Seven large-scale RC rectangular hollow column specimens were tested under monotonic or cyclic lateral loads. The most important design parameter was column length-to-depth aspect ratio ranging between 1.5 and 3.0, and the other test variables included web area ratio, hollow section ratio, and loading history. The tests showed that the initial shear strength reduced in a linear pattern as the column aspect ratio increased, and one specimen tested under cyclic loading achieved approximately 83% of the shear strength of the companion specimen under monotonic loading. Also, several pioneering shear models proposed around the world, all of which were mainly based on tests for columns with solid sections, were reviewed and compared with the test results of this study, for their possible applications to columns with hollow sections. After all, an empirical equation was proposed for concrete contribution to the initial shear strength of RC hollow columns based on fundamental mechanics and the test results.

Key Words
hollow column; shear strength; aspect ratio; displacement ductility; axial load

Ick-Hyun Kim, Chang-Ho Sun: University of Ulsan, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 93 Daehak-ro, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749, South Korea Myoungsu Shin: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798, South Korea

Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is a powerful method which can be used to solve numerical problems in the analysis of structural and dynamical systems. In this study the governing equation which represents the free vibration of coupled shear walls is solved using the DQM method. A one-dimensional model has been used in this study. At the end of study various examples are presented to verify the accuracy of the method.

Key Words
differential quadrature method; coupled shear wall; free vibration; continuum model; sandwich beam

K.B. Bozdogan: Department of Civil Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey

  • Assessment of a concrete arch bridge using static and dynamic load tests
    B. Ozden Caglayan, Kadir Ozakgul and Ovunc Tezer
    Abstract; Full Text (3858K)

Assessment of a monumental concrete arch bridge with a total length of 210 meters having three major spans of 30 meters and a height of 65 meters, which is located in an earthquake-prone region in southern part of the country is presented in this study. Three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge was generated using a commercially available general finite element analysis software and based on the outcomes of a series of in-depth acceleration measurements that were conducted on-site, the model was refined. By using the structural parameters obtained from the dynamic and the static tests, calibrated model of the bridge structure was obtained and this model was used for necessary calculations regarding structural assessment and evaluation.

Key Words
concrete arch bridge; dynamic test; model calibration; impact factor; rating factor

B. Ozden Caglayan, Kadir Ozakgul and Ovunc Tezer: Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

  • Experimental hysteretic behavior of in-plane loaded reinforced grouted multi-ribbed aerated concrete blocks masonry walls
    Sheng-Cai Li, Jian-Xi Dong and Li-Feng Li
    Abstract; Full Text (2344K)

In order to analyze the experimental hysteretic behavior of the in-plane loaded reinforced grouted multi-ribbed aerated concrete blocks masonry walls (RGMACBMW), we have carried out the pseudo static testing on the six specimens of RGMACBMW. Based on the test results and shear failure characteristics, the shear force hysteretic curves and displacement envelope curves of the models were obtained and discussed. On the basis of the hysteretic curves a general skeleton curve of the shear force and displacement was formed. The restoring model was adopted to analyze the seismic behavior and earthquake response of RGMACBMW. The deformation capacity of the specimens was discussed, and the formulas for calculating the lateral stiffness of the walls at different loading stages were proposed as well. The average lateral displacement ductility factor of RGMACBMW calculated based on the test results was 3.16. This value illustrates that if the walls are appropriately designed, it can fully meet the seismic requirement of the structures. The quadri-linear restoring models of the walls degradation by the test results accurately reflect the hysteretic behaviors and skeleton curves of the masonry walls. The restoring model can be applied to the RGMACBMW structure in earthquake response analysis.

Key Words
RGMACBMW, pseudo static test, deformation behavior, stiffness, restoring model

Sheng-Cai Li, Jian-Xi Dong and Li-Feng Li: School of Civil Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, China

  • Dynamic analysis of frames with viscoelastic dampers: a comparison of damper models
    R. Lewandowski, A. Bartkowiak and H. Maciejewski
    Abstract; Full Text (755K)

Frame structures with viscoelastic (VE) dampers mounted on them are considered in this paper. It is the aim of this paper to compare the dynamic characteristics of frame structures with VE dampers when the dampers are modelled by means of different models. The classical rheological models, the model with the fractional order derivative, and the complex modulus model are used. A relatively large structure with VE dampers is considered in order to make the results of comparison more representative. The formulae for dissipation energy are derived. The finite element method is used to derive the equations of motion of the structure with dampers and such equations are written in terms of both physical and state-space variables. The solution to motion equations in the frequency domain is given and the dynamic properties of the structure with VE dampers are determined as a solution to the appropriately defined eigenvalue problem. Several conclusions concerning the applicability of a family of models of VE dampers are formulated on the basis of results of an extensive numerical analysis.

Key Words
dynamics of frames; viscoelastic dampers; dynamic characteristics; classical rheological models; Kelvin model with fractional order derivative; complex modulus model

R. Lewandowski, A. Bartkowiak and H. Maciejewski: Department of Civil Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland

  • Time-dependent effects on dynamic properties of cable-stayed bridges
    Francis T.K. Au and X.T. Si
    Abstract; Full Text (840K)

Structural health monitoring systems are often installed on bridges to provide assessments of the need for structural maintenance and repair. Damage or deterioration may be detected by observation of changes in bridge characteristics evaluated from measured structural responses. However, construction materials such as concrete and steel cables exhibit certain time-dependent behaviour, which also results in changes in structural characteristics. If these are not accounted for properly, false alarms may arise. This paper proposes a systematic and efficient method to study the time-dependent effects on the dynamic properties of cable-stayed bridges. After establishing the finite element model of a cable-stayed bridge taking into account geometric nonlinearities and time-dependent behaviour, long-term time-dependent analysis is carried out by time integration. Then the dynamic properties of the bridge after a certain period can be obtained. The effects of time-dependent behaviour of construction materials on the dynamic properties of typical cable-stayed bridges are investigated in detail.

Key Words
cable-stayed bridges; concrete creep; geometric nonlinearities; structural health monitoring systems; time-dependent behaviour

Francis T.K. Au and X.T. Si: Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China

Table of Contents.
  • 2024  Volume 90      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5
  • 2024  Volume 89      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2023  Volume 88      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2023  Volume 87      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2023  Volume 86      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2023  Volume 85      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2022  Volume 84      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2022  Volume 83      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2022  Volume 82      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2022  Volume 81      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2021  Volume 80      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2021  Volume 79      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2021  Volume 78      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2021  Volume 77      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2020  Volume 76      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2020  Volume 75      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2020  Volume 74      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2020  Volume 73      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2019  Volume 72      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2019  Volume 71      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2019  Volume 70      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2019  Volume 69      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2018  Volume 68      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2018  Volume 67      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2018  Volume 66      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2018  Volume 65      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2017  Volume 64      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2017  Volume 63      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2017  Volume 62      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2017  Volume 61      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2016  Volume 60      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2016  Volume 59      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2016  Volume 58      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2016  Volume 57      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 56      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 55      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 54      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 53      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 52      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 51      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 50      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 49      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 48      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 47      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 46      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 45      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2012  Volume 44      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
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  • 2010  Volume 36      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2010  Volume 35      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2010  Volume 34      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2009  Volume 33      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2009  Volume 32      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
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  • 2008  Volume 30      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2008  Volume 29      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2008  Volume 28      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2007  Volume 27      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2007  Volume 26      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
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  • 2005  Volume 20      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
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  • 2004  Volume 18      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2004  Volume 17      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.5    No.6
  • 2003  Volume 16      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2003  Volume 15      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2002  Volume 14      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2002  Volume 13      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2001  Volume 12      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2001  Volume 11      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2000  Volume 10      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2000  Volume 9      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 1999  Volume 8      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 1999  Volume 7      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 1998  Volume 6      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6    No.7    No.8
  • 1997  Volume 5      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 1996  Volume 4      No. 1      No.2    No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 1995  Volume 3      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 1994  Volume 2      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 1993  Volume 1      No. 1  
    Guide to Authors (Last updated: Oct 25, 2023)

    1. Submission of the paper
    Authors are asked to submit manuscripts in PDF (or Latex) format electronically through the Techno-Press Manuscript Upload System (TeMUS) ( Exceptionally, the special issue papers may be directly submitted to the Guest Editor. If you have difficulties in using TeMUS, please contact us at[]. On receiving submitted papers, the system will issue the paper ID and Password to the corresponding author which may be conveniently used to check the status of submitted papers. Authors should carefully check if their paper satisfied all the requirements in the preliminary list before submission.

    2. Preparation of the manuscript
    General : The manuscripts should be in English and typed with double column and single line spacing on single side of A4 paper. Submitted papers will be published in the category of regular technical papers only. The first page of an article should contain: (1) a title of paper which well reflects the contents of the paper (Arial, 15pt), (2) all the name(s) and affiliations(s) of authors(s) (Arial, 11pt), (3) an abstract of 100~250 words (Times New Roman, 9.5pt), (4) 5-10 keywords following the abstract, and (5) footnote (personal title and email address of the corresponding author (required) and other authors' (not mandatory)). The paper should be concluded by proper conclusions which reflect the findings in the paper. The normal length of the technical paper should be about 8-16 journal pages (double column format). Authors are advised to read the details in the Authors' Guide for guide and Template.
    Tables and figures : Tables and figures should be consecutively numbered and have short titles. They should be referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Fig. 1(a), Figs. 1 and 2, Figs. 1(a)-(d) / Table 1, Tables 1-2), etc. Tables should have borders (1/2pt plane line) with the captions right before the table. Figures should be properly located in the text as an editable image file (.jpg) with captions on the lower cell. All of the original figures and tables are required to be placed at the suitable locations in the text.
    Units and mathematical expressions : It is desirable that units of measurements and abbreviations should follow the System Internationale (SI) except where the other unit system is more suitable. The numbers identifying the displayed mathematical expression should be placed in the parentheses and referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Eq. (1), Eqs. (1)-(2)). Mathematical expressions must be inserted as an object (set as Microsoft Equations 3.0) for Microsoft Word 2007 and after versions. Image-copied text or equations are not acceptable unless they are editable. The raised and lowered fonts cannot be used for superscription and subscription.
    References : A list of references which reflect the current state of technology in the field locates after conclusions of the paper. For details to prepare the list of references and cite them in the text, authors are advised to follow the introduction and the sample list in the Authors' Guide.

    3. Review
    All the submitted papers that have passed the preliminary check by the editors will undergo a rigorous peer-review process to judge their significance and originality. Those papers positively recommended by at least two expert reviewers will be finally accepted for publication in the Techno-Press Journals or after any required modifications are made.

    4. Proofs
    Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author to correct any typesetting errors. Alterations to the original manuscript will not be accepted at this stage. Proofs should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

    5. Copyright
    Submission of an article to a Techno-Press Journal implies that it presents the original and unpublished work, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. On acceptance of the submitted manuscript, it is implied that the copyright thereof is transferred to International Association of Structural Engineering And Mechanics. The Agreement of Authorship, Originality, and Copyright Transfer must be signed and submitted.

    6. Ethics
    General: Techno-Press applies research and publication ethics standards based on COPE's International Standards for Editors and Authors ( Violation of publication ethics will result in the activation of COPE flow chart. (
    Authorship: Authors are encouraged to check ICMJE's guideline for authorship. ( Authorship problems will be dealt with according to COPE flowcharts. (
    IASEM Code of Ethics: Code of Ethics

    7. Open Access
    There is an option of publishing your paper as Open Access. When you receive a formal acceptance email, you will find a link that you may click on to pay the Article Processing Charge (APC) for Open Access publishing.


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    Research and Publication Ethics

    All the editors, publishers, researchers, and peer reviewers of Techno-Press journals strongly encourage to carefully review and follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines:

    1. Authorship
    Authorship credit should be based on
        (1) Substantial contributors to the conception or design of the work or the acquisition, analysis
       or interpretation of data for the work,
        (2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content,
        (3) Final approval of the version to be published, and
        (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related
       to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
    Authors should meet these four conditions after the initial submission of a manuscript and any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained by a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors on the paper. Techno-Press does not correct authorship after the final acceptance unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff. Authorship may be changed before the final acceptance when the authorship correction is requested by all of the authors involved with the manuscript. The corresponding author takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process. The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely manner, and should be available to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information or questions about the paper even after publication.

    2. Originality, plagiarism and duplicate publication
    Submitted manuscripts must not have been previously published or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other journal without the permission of the Editorial Board. Submitted manuscripts are checked for possible plagiarism or duplicate publication upon the paper's arrival. If plagiarism or duplicate publication is detected, the manuscripts may be rejected, the authors will be announced in the journal, and their institutions will be informed. There will also be penalties for the authors. A letter of permission is required for any and all material that has been published previously. It is the responsibility of the author to request permission from the publisher for any material that is being reproduced. This requirement applies to text, figures, and tables.

    3. Conflict of interest statement
    The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors' interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.

    4. Process for managing research and publication misconduct
    When the journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct, such as redundant publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, appropriation by a reviewer of an author's idea or data, and complaints against editors, the resolution process will follow the flowchart provided by COPE,
    The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are carried out by the Editorial Board.

    5. Editorial responsibilities
    The Editorial Board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics:
    * Guidelines for retracting articles;
    * Maintenance of the integrity of academic records;
    * Preclusion of business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards;
    * Publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed; and
    * Excluding plagiarized and fraudulent data.
    The editors maintain the following responsibilities:
    * Responsibility and authority to reject and accept articles;
    * Avoid any conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject or accept;
    * Promote the publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found; and
    * Preserve the anonymity of reviewers.

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