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Volume 16, Number 2, August 2023

The occurrence of unexpected horizontal offset in the instrument or target will result in accumulated horizontal deviation in segment alignment with traditional short-line match method. A geometry control method, the four-point method, is developed for precast segmental bridges to avoid the influences of unexpected horizontal offset. The concept of the four-point method is elucidated. Furthermore, the detailed instruments and instructions are introduced. Finally, the four-point method is validated through a practical engineering application. According to the survey data, after short-line match precast construction, the vertical deviations on both sides vary between -5 mm and 5 mm in almost all segments, and the horizontal deviations vary between -4 mm and 4 mm in all segments. Without on-site adjustment, the maximum vertical and horizontal closure gaps are 12.3 and 26.1 mm, respectively. The four-point method is suggested to alleviate the issues associated with relatively poor soil conditions in casting yard.

Key Words
four-point method; geometry control method; precast segmental bridges; short-line match; unexpected offset

(1) Xuzheng Liu, Huibing Xu, Jianyang Yu:
School of Civil Engineer and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, No.808 Shuanggang East Street, Nanchang, China;
(2) Xuzheng Liu:
State Key Laboratory of Performance Monitoring Protecting of Rail Transit Infrastructure, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China;
(3) Huibing Xu:
China Railway Nanchang Group Co.,Ltd., No.7 Zhanqian Street, Nanchang, China;
(4) Jianyang Yu:
Hangzhou Chengxing Detection Co.,Ltd., No.3 Hengxin Street, Hangzhou, China;
(5) Wei Quan:
School of Civil Engineer and Architecture, Huangshan University, No.39 Xihai Street, Huangshan, China.

The present work provides a new solution to both the correct execution and quality control of straight thread couplers for reinforcing bars under monotonic loading conditions. A random survey on already constructed couplers together with a new mechanical model, adjusted with an experimental campaign, led us to present this new procedure in reinforced concrete construction. Formulation and methodology for a correct placement of straight thread couplers is presented.

Key Words
connectors; mechanical splice; reinforcing bars; reinforced concrete construction

(1) Enrique Hernândez-Montes, Luisa María Gil-Martín:
School of Civil Engineers, University of Granada, Spain;
(2) Fouzia Larbi-Chaht, Mohamed Mouli, Ahmed M. Mohamed, Abdelkader Medjahed, Ahmed Messaoud-Djebara:
Material's Laboratory (LABMAT), Department of Civil Engineering, National Polytechnic School of Oran (ENPO), Algeria;
(3) Lahouari Mammar, Sadek Mahdjouba:
Civil Engineering Department, USTOran, Algeria.

This research endeavors to explore the enhancement of workforce economic efficiency through the application of nanotechnology, focusing on its economic implications. The findings of this investigation reveal that in recent years, surging global population growth and escalating demands for products and services have led to excessive resource consumption, resulting in adverse environmental consequences and altering environmental conditions—a phenomenon referred to as the economic growth dilemma. Entrepreneurs and economic stakeholders have begun to recognize the importance of sustainable development and the integration of environmental considerations into the production of goods and services. Within this context, knowledge-based economies have emerged as a driving force for sustainable business practices, particularly in the realm of nanotechnology. The integration of nanotechnology across various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agriculture, environmental management, and the chemical and petroleum sectors, as well as energy distribution, has yielded remarkable results. Consequently, this research aims to investigate the application and integration of nanotechnology in environmentally friendly silver nanoparticle production within select industries. Subsequently, it will examine the far-reaching implications of nanotechnology on economic growth and sustainable development.

Key Words
economic growth; green production; nanotechnology; silver nanoparticles; sustainable development

(1) Jat-Syu Lau:
School of Economics and Management, Quanzhou University of Information Engineering, Quanzhou 362008, Fujian, China;
(2) Ziyuan Li:
Wuhan Dapeng Shangpin Ecological agriculture Co., LTD, Wuhan 431400, Hubei, China.

Textile-reinforced concrete composite (TRC) is a new alternative material that can satisfy sustainable development needs in the civil engineering field. Its mechanical behaviour and properties have been identified from the experimental works. However, it is necessary for a numerical approach to consider the effect of the parameters on TRC's behaviour with lower analysis duration and cost related to the experiment. This paper presents obtained results of the numerical modelling for TRC composite using the cracking model for the cementitious matrix in TRC. As a result, the TRC composite exhibited a strain- hardening behaviour with the cracking phase characterized by the drops in tensile stress on the stress-strain curve. This model also showed the failure mode by multi-cracking on the TRC specimen surface. Furthermore, the parametric studies showed the effect of several parameters on the TRC tensile behaviour, as the reinforcement ratio, the length and position of the deformation measurement zone, and elevated temperatures. These numerical results were compared with the experiment and showed a remarkable agreement for all cases of this study.

Key Words
cracking model; numerical modelling; parametric study stress-strain curve; textile-reinforced concrete

(1) Tien M. Tran:
Department of Mechanisms of Materials, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology (HUMG), n

Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) has good workability such as high flowability and good cohesiveness. The workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and anti-penetration characteristics of three kinds of SFRSCC were investigated in this paper. The fraction of steel fibers of the SFRSCC is 0.5%, 1.5% and 2.0% respectively. The results of the static tests show that the splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of fraction of steel fibers, while the compressive strength of 1.5% SFRSCC is lowest. It is demonstrated that the anti-penetration ability of 1.5% SFRSCC subjected to a velocity projectile (200-500 m/s) is better than 0.5% and 2.0% SFRSCC according to the experimental results. Considering the steel fiber effects, the existing formula is revised to predict penetration depth, and it is revealed that the revised predicted depth of penetration is in good agreement with the experimental results. The conclusion of this paper is helpful to the experimental investigations and engineering application.

Key Words
anti-penetration; mechanical performance; self-compacting; steel fiber

(1) Jian Ma, Kai Zhao, Yongliang Zhang:
CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China;
(2) Jian Ma, Liang Bian, Jie Zhang:
Naval Architecture and Civil Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, 215600, China;
(3) Yongliang Zhang:
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China;
(4) Huayan Yao:
School of Civil and Hydraulic engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China.

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