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Honorary Editor-in-Chief
    Prof. Shih-Chi Liu
    Division of Civil and Mechanical Systems
    The National Science Foundation, USA

    Prof. Alexandros - Dimitrios G. Tsonos
    Dept. of Civil Engineering
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Prof. Stavros A. Anagnostopoulos
    Dept. of Civil Engineering
    University of Patras, Greece

    Prof. Nicos Makris
    Dept. of Civil, Environ., & Construct. Eng.
    University of Central Florida, USA

    Prof. Keh-Chyuan Tsai
    Dept. of Civil Engineering
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Managing Editor
    Prof. Chang-Koon Choi
    Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
    Korea Advanced Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Korea

ISSN:2092-7614(Print), ISSN:2092-7622(Online)
 Impact factor : 0.789(2015)
 5-Year Impact factor : 0.849
Vol 12/13(12 issues) for 2017, Monthly
Aims and Scope

The Earthquakes and Structures, An International Journal, focuses on the effects of earthquakes on civil engineering structures. The journal will serve as a powerful repository of technical information and will provide a highimpact publication platform for the global community of researchers in the traditional, as well as emerging, subdisciplines of the broader earthquake engineering field. Specifically, some of the major topics covered by the Journal include: .. characterization of strong ground motions, .. quantification of earthquake demand and structural capacity, .. design of earthquake resistant structures and foundations, .. experimental and computational methods, .. seismic regulations and building codes, .. seismic hazard assessment, .. seismic risk mitigation, .. site effects and soil-structure interaction, .. assessment, repair and strengthening of existing structures, including historic structures and monuments, and .. emerging technologies including passive control technologies, structural monitoring systems, and cyberinfrastructure tools for seismic data management, experimental applications, early warning and response
Editorial Board
Prof. A. Benavent-Climent
University of Granada
Granada E-18071, Spain

Prof. Rita Bento
Instituto Superior Tecnico
1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal

Prof. Shuenn-Yih Chang
Nat'l Taipei Univ. of Tech.
Taipei 106, Taiwan

Prof. C.C. Chou
National Taiwan University
Taipei 10764, Taiwan

Prof. Nawawi Chouw
University Auckland
Auckland 1010, New Zealand

Prof. M.C. Constantinou
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260, USA

Prof. Rajesh Dhakal
University of Canterbury
Private Bag 4800, New Zealand

Prof. Aurelio Ghersi
University of Catania
Catania 95100, Italy

Prof. Russell A. Green
Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA

Prof. Jason Ingham
University of Auckland
Auckland 1010, New Zealand

Prof. R.S. Jangid
Indian Institute of Technology
Mumbai 400076, India

Prof. R. Jankowski
Gdansk University of Technology
80-233 Gdansk, Poland

Prof. H.J. Jung
Korea Adv Inst of Sci & Tech
Daejeon 305-701, Korea

Prof. Theodore L. Karavasilis
University of Warwick
Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK

Prof. Petros Komodromos
University of Cyprus
Nicosia 1678, Cyprus

Prof. S. Lagomarsino
University of Genova
Genova I-16145, Italy

Prof. Nelson Lam
The University of Melbourne
Victoria 3010, Australia

Prof. H.S. Lee
Korea University
Seoul 136-701, Korea

Prof. Chunxiang Li
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China

Prof. Dimitrios G. Lignos
McGill University
Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada

Prof. Jerome P. Lynch
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA

Prof. J.L. Tassoulas
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78712-0273, USA

Prof. Amador Teran-Gilmore
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana
Mexico City 02200, Mexico

Prof. T. Triantafyllou
University of Patras
Patras 265 00, Greece

Prof. Tomaso Trombetti
University of Bologna
Bologna 40136, Italy

Prof. Radu Vacareanu
Technical U of Civil Engineering
Bucharest RO-020396, Romania

Prof. Aspasia Zerva
Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Prof. Izuru Takewaki
Kyoto University
Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
Prof. C.S. Manohar
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore 560 012, India

Prof. G. Manolis
Aristotle University
Thessaloniki 54124, Greece

Prof. Angelo Masi
University of Basilicata
Potenza, Italy

Prof. Jason P. McCormick
University of Michigan
MI 48109-2125, USA

Prof. Yuji Miyamoto
Osaka University
Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Prof. Fabrizio Mollaioli
Sapienza University of Rome
Rome 00197, Italy

Dr. Naohiro Nakamura
Takenaka Corporation
Chiba 270-1395, Japan

Prof. Camillo Nuti
The University of Rome Three
Rome 00184, Italy

Prof. S.J. Pantazopoulou
University of Cyprus
Nicosia 1678, Cyprus

Prof. Apostolos Papageorgiou
University of Patras
Patras 265 00, Greece

Prof. Jorge Ruiz-Garcia
Univ Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo
Michoacan, Mexico

Prof. Haluk Sucuoglu
Middle East Technical University
Ankara TR-06531, Turkey

Dr. Timothy Sullivan
University of Pavia
Pavia I-27100, Italy

Instructions to Authors

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1. Submission of the paper
Authors are asked to submit manuscripts in PDF (or Latex) format electronically through the Techno-Press Manuscript Upload System (TeMUS) ( Exceptionally, the special issue papers may be directly submitted to the Guest Editor. If you have difficulties in using TeMUS, please contact us at[]. On receiving submitted papers, the system will issue the paper ID and Password to the corresponding author, which may be conveniently used to check the status of submitted papers.

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General : General: The manuscripts should be in English and typed with double column and single line spacing on single side of A4 paper. Submitted papers will be published in the category of regular technical papers only. The first page of an article should contain: (1) a title of paper which well reflects the contents of the paper (Arial, 15pt), (2) all the name(s) and affiliations(s) of authors(s) (Arial, 11pt), (3) an abstract of 100~250 words (Times New Roman, 9.5pt), (4) 5-10 keywords following the abstract, and (5) footnote (personal title and email address of the corresponding author (required) and other authors' (not mandatory)). The paper should be concluded by proper conclusions which reflect the findings in the paper. The normal length of the technical paper should be about 8-16 journal pages (double column format).
Please refer to Authors Guide:
Tables and figures : Tables and figures should be consecutively numbered and have short titles. They should be referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Fig. 1(a), Figs. 1 and 2, Figs. 1(a)-(d) / Table 1, Tables 1-2), etc. Tables should have borders (1/2pt plane line) with the captions right before the table. Figures should be properly located in the text as an editable image file (.jpg) with captions on the lower cell. All of the original figures and tables are required to be placed at the suitable location in the text. It should be avoided whenever possible that a figure or table occupies both columns, in particular, it should not be stretched from one end to another.
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References : A list of references which reflect the current state of technology in the field locates after conclusions of the paper. For details to prepare the list of references and cite them in the text, authors are advised to follow the introduction and the sample list in the Authors' Guide of the instruction.

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7. Publication Fee
Except for open access articles, there is no page charge or article processing fee for submission and publication in this journal.

Sample Issue
Volume 3, Number 1, January 2012
  • An empirical bracketed duration relation for stable continental regions of North America
    Jongwon Lee and Russell A. Green
    Abstract; Full Text (4962K)

An empirical predictive relationship correlating bracketed duration to earthquake magnitude, site-to-source distance, and local site conditions (i.e. rock vs. stiff soil) for stable continental regions of North America is presented herein. The correlation was developed from data from 620 horizontal motions for central and eastern North America (CENA), consisting of 28 recorded motions and 592 scaled motions. The bracketed duration data was comprised of nonzero and zero durations. The non-linear mixed-effects regression technique was used to fit a predictive model to the nonzero duration data. To account for the zero duration data, logistic regression was conducted to model the probability of zero duration occurrences. Then, the probability models were applied as weighting functions to the NLME regression results. Comparing the bracketed durations for CENA motions with those from active shallow crustal regions (e.g. western North America: WNA), the motions in CENA have longer bracketed durations than those in the WNA. Especially for larger magnitudes at far distances, the bracketed durations in CENA tend to be significantly longer than those in WNA.

Key Words
bracketed duration; central/eastern North America ground motions; ground motion attenuation; ground motion predictive relationships; stable continental region ground motions; strong ground motion durations

Jongwon Lee: Paul C. Rizzo Associates, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA Russell A. Green: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

  • Are theoretically calculated periods of vibration for skeletal structures error-free?
    Sameh S.F. Mehanny
    Abstract; Full Text (3450K)

Simplified equations for fundamental period of vibration of skeletal structures provided by most seismic design provisions suffer from the absence of any associated confidence levels and of any reference to their empirical basis. Therefore, such equations may typically give a sector of designers the false impression of yielding a fairly accurate value of the period of vibration. This paper, although not addressing simplified codes equations, introduces a set of mathematical equations utilizing the theory of error propagation and First-Order Second-Moment (FOSM) techniques to determine bounds on the relative error in theoretically calculated fundamental period of vibration of skeletal structures. In a complementary step, and for verification purposes, Monte Carlo simulation technique has been also applied. The latter, despite involving larger computational effort, is expected to provide more precise estimates than FOSM methods. Studies of parametric uncertainties applied to reinforced concrete frame bents – potentially idealized as SDOF systems – are conducted demonstrating the effect of randomness and uncertainty of various relevant properties, shaping both mass and stiffness, on the variance (i.e. relative error) in the estimated period of vibration. Correlation between mass and stiffness parameters – regarded as random variables – is also thoroughly discussed. According to achieved results, a relative error in the period of vibration in the order of 19% for new designs/constructions and of about 25% for existing structures for assessment purposes – and even climbing up to about 36% in some special applications and/or circumstances – is acknowledged when adopting estimates gathered from the literature for relative errors in the relevant random input variables.

Key Words
period of vibration; mass; stiffness; error propagation; monte carlo simulation

Sameh S.F. Mehanny: Structural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), Cairo, Egypt

  • Seismic behavior of interior RC beam-column joints with additional bars under cyclic loading
    Xilin Lu, Tonny H. Urukap, Sen Li and Fangshu Lin
    Abstract; Full Text (7096K)

The behavior of beam-column joints in moment resisting frame structures is susceptible to damage caused by seismic effects due to poor performance of the joints. A good number of researches were carried out to understand the complex mechanism of RC joints considered in current seismic design codes. The traditional construction detailing of transverse reinforcement has resulted in serious joint failures during earthquakes. This paper introduces a new design philosophy involving the use of additional diagonal bars within the joint particularly suitable for low to medium seismic effects in earthquake zones. In this study, ten full-scale interior beam-column specimens were constructed with various additional reinforcement details and configurations. The results of the experiment showed that adding additional bars is a promising approach in reinforced concrete structures where earthquakes are eminent. In terms of overall cracking observation during the test, the specimens with additional bars (diagonal and straight) compared with the ones without them showed fewer cracks in the column. Furthermore, concrete confinement is certainly an important design measure as recommended by most international codes.

Key Words
reversed cyclic loading; beam-column joint; plastic hinge; additional diagonal bars; displacement ductility; column shear force; crack propagation

Xilin Lu: State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China Tonny H. Urukap, Sen Li and Fangshu Lin: College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

  • Ductility inverse-mapping method for SDOF systems including passive dampers for varying input level of ground motion
    Hyeong-Gook Kim, Shinta Yoshitomi, Masaaki Tsuji and Izuru Takewaki
    Abstract; Full Text (5192K)

A ductility inverse-mapping method for SDOF systems including passive dampers is proposed which enables one to find the maximum acceleration of ground motion for the prescribed maximum response deformation. In the conventional capacity spectrum method, the maximum response deformation is computed through iterative procedures for the prescribed maximum acceleration of ground motion. This is because the equivalent linear model for response evaluation is described in terms of unknown maximum deformation. While successive calculations are needed, no numerically unstable iterative procedure is required in the proposed method. This ductility inverse-mapping method is applied to an SDOF model of bilinear hysteresis. The SDOF models without and with passive dampers (viscous, viscoelastic and hysteretic dampers) are taken into account to investigate the effectiveness of passive dampers for seismic retrofitting of building structures. Since the maximum response deformation is the principal parameter and specified sequentially, the proposed ductility inverse-mapping method is suitable for the implementation of the performance-based design.

Key Words
capacity spectrum method; maximum ground acceleration; response spectrum; passive dampers; ductility inverse-mapping method; demand and capacity spectra; equivalent linear model; performance- based design

Hyeong-Gook Kim, Shinta Yoshitomi, Masaaki Tsuji and Izuru Takewaki: Department of Architecture & Architectural Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-katsura, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan

  • Seismic vulnerability and preservation of historical masonry monumental structures
    Adem Dogangun and Halil Sezen
    Abstract; Full Text (4829K)

Seismic damage and vulnerability of five historical masonry structures surveyed after the 1999 Kocaeli and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes are discussed in this paper. The structures are located in two neighboring cities that have been struck by five very large (Ms

Key Words
seismic damage; historical Turkish mosques; masonry; deterioration; earthquake

Adem Dogangun: Department of Civil Engineering, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey Halil Sezen: Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, The Ohio State University, Ohio, USA

Table of Contents
  • 2017  Volume 12      No. 1      No.2
  • 2016  Volume 11      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2016  Volume 10      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 9      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 8      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 7      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 6      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 5      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 4      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2012  Volume 3      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.5    No.6
  • 2011  Volume 2      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 2010  Volume 1      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.0

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